Conference: “Oral History in Times of Change: Gender, Documentation and the Making of Archives”

In September 2015, The Women Forum and Memory organized an international conference on “Oral History in Times of Change: Gender, Documentation and the Making of Archives,” in Cairo, Egypt. The conference was organized in co-operation with The Supreme Council for Culture in Cairo and UN Women. It was organized to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of Women Forum and Memory, which aims to produce alternative knowledge by constructing an archive of women’s voices.

The conference brought together scholars, researchers, students, artists, and practitioners to exchange views and experiences regarding the challenges of documenting oral histories in times of change. It focused on methodological and theoretical issues regarding the documentation of oral history and the creation of archives. The major questions that participants were urged to address included: What are the potential and limits of oral history projects in times of change? What are the challenges facing oral historians in such times? How can oral history empower women to become active participants in politics? What are the challenges posed by the digital revolution in the field of oral history? What are the challenges to the construction of a “representative” archive of voices in times of conflict?

Lucine Taminian (center-right) discussing oral history with researchers from Egypt, Yemen, and Iraq (Photo courtesy of Alaa Hameed, 2015)

Lucine Taminian (center-right) discussing oral history with researchers from Egypt, Yemen, and Iraq (Photo courtesy of Alaa Hameed, 2015)

The three-day conference started on September 13. Participants came from fourteen countries: Algeria, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States.

The conference program consisted of eight panels, three keynote presentations, and two round tables. Other activities included the screening of two films, “Four Women of Egypt” and “In the Shadow of a Man,” and the Exhibit of the Private Papers of Wedad Mitiri (1927-2007), who was a prominent figure and unionist in the Egyptian national leftist movement. Recorded interviews with her were played while we walked through the exhibit.

I was invited to present a paper on “Oral History in Times of Conflict: Ethical and Methodological Issues.” My presentation was informed by my experience as senior researcher for TAARII’s Iraqi Oral History Project (IOHP), where more than 180 Iraqis living outside Iraq were interviewed. I explored the following questions, using examples from the oral histories we collected: Why do people remember what they remember? How does memory work? What challenges do oral historians face when documenting oral histories in times of conflict? How do the methods and ethics of documenting oral histories differ from other research methods and ethics?

Panel participants fielding questions from the audience (Photo courtesy of Alaa Hameed, 2015)

Panel participants fielding questions from the audience (Photo courtesy of Alaa Hameed, 2015)

Three additional panelists raised the challenges entailed in using oral histories. Sandra Hale, who has worked extensively in Sudan, questioned the application of “expert knowledge” as intervention in crisis. She raised three interesting questions: How can scholars interpret the various forms of knowledge produced by fact-finding missions, “truth” and reconciliation commissions, and witnessing and testimonies? How can we retrieve a form of knowledge from either the collective memory or individual memories to guide us in conflict resolution? Is indigenous knowledge/memory more valid than information produced by “experts” with its claim of “objectivity”? Nadje al-Ali from the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), whose project documented the oral histories of Iraqi women, explored the issue of using oral histories when the prevailing narratives are politicized, contested, and linked to power struggles. Finally, Hessah Lootah, from United Arab Emirates University, talked about the challenges involved in “preserving” oral heritage, which entails reducing it and transferring it from an action-interaction space into one of “reading” and “classification.”

A number of presenters in other panels raised the issue of social media as a source of oral history. For instance, Randi Degulhem, from The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Center for Scientific Research in France), researched two websites of Syrian activists (she calls them “amateur historians”) who collect short testimonies, video narratives, paper publications, graffiti, etc., and place them on the websites to document the history of the Syrian uprising. Nahawand Eissa, from the Lebanese University, shed light on the narratives of what she called “historian-citizens” who created new spaces made possible by recent advances in technology to document their memory without mediators. These presentations raise two related issues: how oral is an online text, and the relationship between orality and writing.

A number of presenters approached the multiple genres of oral history: popular working class songs, novels as depository of oral history, memoirs, testimonies, and drama as an archive of women’s experience.

The first round table, “Archives and Power,” focused on state control over the production of documents and archives, and raised two questions: If the state controls the production of documents, what about documents in the times of the Internet? And, how does state control limit/facilitate researchers’ access to an archive? The second round table, “Feminist Archives and the Production of Alternative Knowledge,” concerned three major questions: What is the nature of a “feminist archive”? What is alternative knowledge? What are the criteria for identifying knowledge as worthy of being preserved and documented?

The American University in Cairo has offered to publish a select number of conference papers in a special issue of Cairo Papers in Social Science (CPSS), a quarterly refereed monograph series, which has become a digital publication as of 2015.

The conference participants having dinner at a Mamluk Palace functioning currently as a cultural center (Photo credit: Lucine Taminian, 2015)

The conference participants having dinner at a Mamluk Palace functioning currently as a cultural center (Photo credit: Lucine Taminian, 2015)

Our Institutional Members: American University of Iraq, Sulaimani (AUIS) & Institute of Regional and International Studies (IRIS)

Introduction

The American University of Iraq, Sulaimani (AUIS) is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), and is Iraq’s only non-profit, independent, liberal arts-inspired institution of higher learning. The Institute of Regional and International Studies (IRIS) is the University’s research and policy center.

Through multidisciplinary research projects, strategic partnerships, a fellowship program and open dialogue events among experts and influential public leaders, the University and its Institute examine the most complex issues facing the KRI, Iraq, and the Middle East, most notably during the annual Sulaimani Forum. The Institute’s main focus areas include but are not limited to: energy, governance, gender, IDP crisis, post-ISIS areas, water resource management, and archaeology.

 

Partnerships and Collaboration

AUIS and IRIS partner with scholars and institutions on research projects, conferences, and exchanges.

Through our fellowship program, AUIS and IRIS can offer scholars a safe and dynamic place to be based while conducting research and fieldwork on the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, or neighboring states. Please find the fellowship information and application here. If you have further questions and are interested in applying, please email us at iris@auis.edu.krd. You can find a list of past and current fellows here.

AUIS and IRIS are also interested in collaborating with universities, institutes, and organizations on student and faculty exchanges, to implement research projects or hold conferences and roundtables on academic subjects or current events. Our location and student body and staff allow a great deal of access to a variety of places and institutions around the KRI and Iraq.

 

AUIS and IRIS Faculty and Staff

AUIS faculty, IRIS staff, and fellows regularly conduct research and publish on topics related to Iraqi studies, especially with regard to digital archiving initiatives and archaeological excavation, gender studies, religion, and energy policy.

  • Professor Bilal Wahab is an expert on energy policy, and publishes and comments often on energy issues in Iraq and the KRI. Here is one of his recent publications, “Iraq and KRG Energy Policies: Actors Challenges and Opportunities.
  • Professor Edith Szanto has published extensively on Twelver Shi’i rituals, and conducts research on Sufism in the KRI.
  • Professor Choman Hardi is an expert on gender studies, and publishes on gender, genocide, migration, and the women’s movement in the KRI. Her book, Gendered Experiences of Genocide: Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq, was chosen by the Yankee Book Peddler as a UK Core Title.
  • Professor Tobin Hartnell is an archaeologist and is working on a variety of projects in the KRI. His most recent work on the Sasanian Empire (224 – 651 CE) is published in the Journal of Ancient History.
  • Professor Elizabeth Campbell is a historian and her research focuses on religion in Iraq and Christian-Muslim relations. She is currently working on a project with UCLA to digitize local manuscripts and documents.
  • IRIS Director Christine van den Toorn has conducted research on local politics all over the KRI as well as disputed territories. Her current focus is on post-ISIS territories. She publishes frequently in Iraq Oil Report, Niqash, Inside Iraqi Politics, and Daily Beast.

The recently launched IRIS Iraq Report (IIR) offers on-the-ground reporting and analysis on Iraq’s most pressing issues and aims to provide decision-makers and experts with solid research and analysis of Iraq policy. The Report is unique because it is produced in Iraq, and is based on in-country fieldwork as well as open source research. The first IIR, titled “Challenges and Opportunities in post-ISIS Territories: The Case of Rabia,” can be found here.

 

Brief Background on AUIS

AUIS opened its doors in 2007 with several dozen students and now has over 1,400. Most faculty at AUIS hail from the United States, but also from countries around the world. Classes are all in English, and students must graduate from the rigorous year-long Academic Preparatory Program (APP) before entering the undergraduate program. AUIS offers majors in International Studies, Business Administration, English and Journalism, Information Technology, and Engineering. Inside the classroom, professors use lecture and discussion-based pedagogy rather than the traditional rote memorization used in Iraq and other regional states. AUIS also offers students the opportunity to engage in a variety of extracurricular activities similar to that in the U.S.: Debate Society, Model UN, sports teams, Shakespeare Club, and community service projects.

The student body hails from all over the Kurdistan Region and Iraq. The majority is from Sulaimani, the University’s host city, but there are large representations from Erbil and smaller towns like Ranya and Halabja. In addition, 18% of the student body is from “Iraq proper,” mainly from the capital, Baghdad, but with representations from Najaf, Kerbala, Basra, Anbar, Diyala, and Ninewa.

 

For more information please visit the AUIS website and IRIS website.

IRIS contact: iris@auis.edu.iq

AUIS contact: info@auis.edu.krd or communications@auis.edu.krd

TAARII Receptions at ASOR and MESA 2015

TAARII is pleased to announce that it will be holding receptions at both The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) or Middle East Studies Association (MESA) conferences this year. If you are attending either of those conferences, please stop by our reception! Members, non-members, and anyone who is interested in Iraq studies is welcome.

TAARII’s Reception at ASOR

When: Thursday, November 19th at 6:30–7:30 pm

Where: Hope I & II, The InterContinental Buckhead Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia

TAARII’s Reception at MESA

When: Saturday, November 21st at 4:00–6:00 pm

Where: T2-Tower Court C, Sheraton Denver Downtown Hotel, Denver, Colorado

Call to Action: Help CAORC Secure US Funding!

Dear Colleagues and American Overseas Research Centers Friends:

Help the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) to

secure U.S. funding for the American Overseas Research Centers and other International Education Opportunities!

Please ACT Immediately!
Federal budget decisions are being made now.

The U.S. Senate’s version of the FY 2016 federal budget proposes large cuts to the Department of Education’s funding for international education and foreign language learning. These programs are vital for preparing American experts who can engage internationally in today’s global environment. Help CAORC urge Congress to approve the House of Representatives version of the FY 2016 federal budget by writing your Senators and Representatives.

U.S. Citizens:

Please help by using this link (http://p2a.co/YAw6Vds)
where you can easily send a prepared letter of support to all of your
Senators and Representatives


Non U.S. Citizens:

Your voices also count!
We would appreciate receiving brief statements of support from you.
You can send these to us at: outreach@caorc.org


Papers on Iraq at MESA, November 21–24, 2015

The Middle East Studies Association is hosting its Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown Hotel from November 21–24, 2015.

The following are a list of papers to be presented at MESA this year that have Iraq-related content. For more information on the presenters or the abstract of the papers, please click on the provided links.

TAARII-Sponsored Panel

[P4034] States of Imagination: Four Perspectives on Iraqi Political Culture, 1900-2014. Created by Annie GreeneMonday, 11/23/15 11:00am

Presentations with Iraq Content

[P4183-17543] “To Strengthen Faith and Commitment”: The Contours of Iraqi-Sudanese Relations, 1979-2003 by Michael Brill (Monday, 11/23/15 5:00pm)

[P4231-17014] (Mis)Representing the Sunni Uprising in Iraq: Culture Talk and the “Islamic State” by Tim Jacoby (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[P4060-17094] A Necessary Other: Muslim and Christian Leaders in Medieval Eastern Anatolia and Jazīra by Thomas Carlson (Sunday, 11/22/15 11:00am)

[P4232-17044] A Phoenix in Ashes: Modernist Poetry in Iran and Iraq by Thomas Thompson (Sunday, 11/22/15 8:30am)

[P4139-17957] A Tale of Two Governments in a Divided City: Maintenance of Public Order in Baghdad During The Early Seljuq Era by Mohammed Allehbi (Tuesday, 11/24/15 1:30pm)

[P4170-18117] Al-Sadr’s Indigenization Strategies and the Emergence of Iraqi Arab Shi‘ism by Robert J. Riggs (Sunday, 11/22/15 2:00pm)

[P4026-17011] Allies Divided: Differing Israeli, American and Turkish Understandings of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) by Yasin Bostanci (Monday, 11/23/15 5:00pm)

[P4176-17535] Assyrians and the Narrative of the Simile Massacre by Fadi Dawood (Monday, 11/23/15 2:30pm)

[P4014-17243] Assyrians in Ba’thist Iraq: From “National Minority” to “Religious Denomination.” by Alda Benjamen (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[P4231-18006] Ayatollahs and the Battle over Religion in Post-Saddam Iraq by Caroleen Sayej (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[S4295-18156] Between Two Rivers: A Hydropolitical History of Iraq by Janna Aladdin (Saturday, 11/21/15 4:00pm)

[P4135-17294] British intelligence and colonial control: The internment and freedom of Arab “renegades” during and after the Second World War. by Steven Wagner (Tuesday, 11/24/15 1:30pm)

[P4189-17549] Caught in the Trap of Memory: Trauma, Border Crossing, and Hyperrealism in Hassan Blasim’s “The Iraqi Christ” by Khaled Al-Masri (Sunday, 11/22/15 11:00am)

[P4269-17712] Changing the Program: The AIU Girls’ School in Baghdad After WWI by Jonathan Sciarcon (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[P4106-17175] Conducted Chaos: Frontiering Iraq’s Anbar Province by Kali Rubaii (Tuesday, 11/24/15 11:00am)

[P4139-17398] Courtiers in the Cairo, Shiraz, and Baghdad Courts: Does a Common Pool of Personnel mean Common Court Cultures? by Rachel T. Howes (Tuesday, 11/24/15 1:30pm)

[P4071-17899] Don’t Take It Seriously: Roasting the Patron in the Early Ninth Century by Jeannie Miller (Sunday, 11/22/15 2:00pm)

[P4185-17699] Dynastic power as messianic promise: Forms of monotheistic messianism in the Abbasid caliphate (ca. 750-850 C.E.) by Hayrettin Yucesoy (Saturday, 11/21/15 5:30pm)

[P4161-17862] Efforts in Iraq to document and preserve cultural heritage in crisis by Katharyn Hanson (Tuesday, 11/24/15 11:00am)

[P4026-17325] EU and Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East and ISIS: Pragmatism vs. Ideology? by Ioannis N. Grigoriadis (Monday, 11/23/15 5:00pm)

[P4064-17043] Fight, Flee, or Foment: Soldier Responses to Iraq’s 1991 Uprising by Dorothy Ohl (Sunday, 11/22/15 8:30am)

[P4034-17409] From Baghdad with Love: Negotiating Ottoman-Iraqi Regionalism under the CUP by Annie Greene (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4253-17056] From Jahilliya to Protection: Tanzimat Reforms and Changing Ottoman Attitudes toward Antiquities by Jameel Haque (Sunday, 11/22/15 8:30am)

[P4142-17309] From Mamluk to Sultan: Appropriating Legitimacy by Visual Means – The Case of Badr al-Dīn Lu’lu’ by Dana Brostowsky Gilboa (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4243-17102] Homeland Ties, Community Cohesion and Youth Disengagement?: Middle Eastern Christian Diasporic Humanitarian and Political Activism in the UK by Fiona McCallum (Tuesday, 11/24/15 11:00am)

[P4034-18059] Idle Days in Baghdad: Coffee Shops and the Dangers of Unsupervised Intellectual Activity by Pelle Valentin Olsen (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4268-17956] John Van Ess’s High Hope and the National Education System in Iraq in the Early Twentieth Century by Israa Alhassani (Sunday, 11/22/15 2:00pm)

[P4253-17871] Legitimizing Middle Eastern Lineages through Archaeology : Hormuzd Rassam and the Making of an Assyrian National History by Joseph Hermiz (Sunday, 11/22/15 8:30am)

[P4170-17846] Modern Usuli Shi‘ism as a Transnational Movement by Zackery Heern (Sunday, 11/22/15 2:00pm)

[P4161-17471] Monitoring Cultural Heritage in Conflict Using Satellite Imagery: Syria and Iraq by Susan Wolfinbarger (Tuesday, 11/24/15 11:00am)

[P4176-18003] Nation and Identity in Post-2003 Iraq: Re-inserting the Assyrians by Mariam Georgis (Monday, 11/23/15 2:30pm)

[P4079-17122] Ottoman Hydraulic Projects and Condominium Rule in Iraq, 1638-1750 by Faisal Husain (Sunday, 11/22/15 4:30pm)

[P4272-16990] Post-2003 Iraqi Women’s Rights Activism: between Ngos, Sectarianism and Rise of Conservatisms by Zahra Ali (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4126-17312] Pre-2003 Iraq: Sectarian Relations Before ‘Sectarianization’. by Fanar Haddad (Saturday, 11/21/15 5:30pm)

[P4034-17924] Rivers and Ruins: the British imperial episteme of Iraq’s geo-space by Carl Shook (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4236-16955] Rumors as Resistance in Iraq under Saddam Hussein: Evidence from the Ba`th Party Bureaucracy by Lisa Blaydes (Sunday, 11/22/15 4:30pm)

[P4126-17247] Sectarianization and the Aporias of the Islamic Republic’s Pan-Islamist Hegemony: Iran’s Interventions in Iraq and Syria Compared by Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi (Saturday, 11/21/15 5:30pm)

[P4034-17552] Seeing, perceiving and believing the spatial politics of Baghdad by Omar Sirri (Monday, 11/23/15 11:00am)

[P4080-17172] Stories beyond progress and modernity. Archaeologies in the Ancient Near East by Mirjam Brusius (Saturday, 11/21/15 5:30pm)

[P4118-17236] Subversive Teachers and the Limits of Rebellion: Government Schooling across the Interwar Middle East by Hilary Falb Kalisman (Sunday, 11/22/15 8:30am)

[P4231-17440] Sunnis, Shi’a, and the State in Iraq since 2003: The Construction of a Sectarian-Authoritarian State by Nassima Neggaz (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[P4139-17443] The contested history of the early Mazyadid amirate and its role in the fourth-fifth/tenth-eleventh century political arena by Eric J. Hanne (Tuesday, 11/24/15 1:30pm)

[P4231-17155] The Socio-Political Aspect of the Ba’th Government-Sponsored Militias in Northern Iraq: New Archival Findings by Yaniv Voller (Monday, 11/23/15 8:30am)

[P4251-17832] The ‘Always, Already Hybrid’ one: The Diaries of Alexander Svoboda from Baghdad to Paris and Back. by Huma Gupta (Tuesday, 11/24/15 11:00am)

[P4129-17567] Transporting Iraqi Oil: Empire, internationalism and the politics of the Iraq-Mediterranean oil pipeline, 1928-31 by Natasha Pesaran (Tuesday, 11/24/15 1:30pm)

[P4183-17690] War and Regime Entrenchment in Saddam’s Iraq by Samuel Helfont (Monday, 11/23/15 5:00pm)

[P4017-17237] When Wounds Travel by Omar Dewachi (Sunday, 11/22/15 4:30pm)

[P4017-17425] Winning Hearts and Minds: Environment as a form of Humanitarianism in the Recent Iraq War by Bridget Guarasci (Sunday, 11/22/15 4:30pm)

[P4178-17504] Witnessing Traumas, Performing Alterity in Heather Raffo’s 9 Parts of Desire by Hanadi Al-Samman (Monday, 11/23/15 2:30pm)

[P4183-18017] “Culturalization” in Baʿthist Iraq by Aaron Faust (Monday, 11/23/15 5:00pm)

[P4080-17692] “Rending the Veils of Time and Space”: `Ali al-Wardi, Decolonization, and the Sciences of the Self by Sara Pursley (Saturday, 11/21/15 5:30pm)

Conference Report: Radical Increments – Toward New Platforms of Engaging Iraqi Studies

 A Conference Report by Alda Benjamen, Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of History at the University of Maryland, College Park, and TAARII Representative

On April 24 and 25, 2015 Columbia University in the City of New York hosted a conference focusing on Iraqi studies, entitled “Radical Increments: Toward New Platforms of Engaging Iraqi Studies.” The conference was co-organized by Dr. Muhsin al-Musawa (Columbia University), Dr. Yasmeen Hanoosh (Portland State University), and Dr. Abeer Shaheen (Columbia University), and sponsored by the Columbia University’s Middle East Institute and Middle Eastern, South Asian and African Studies Department, and Dr. Aziz and Arwa al-Shaibani. One of the goals of the conference was “to create an informed space to address major intellectual and political issues pertinent to Iraq in a manner that bears practical utility.” As a result the conference successfully intertwined speakers from interdisciplinary fields who presented rich material pertaining to institution building and spaces, secular and religious politics, literature, and Iraqi Diasporas. Presenters included highly noted academics, alongside more junior scholars with intriguing academic projects. Also accounted for were internationally acclaimed Iraqi novelists, Iraqi government representatives, and NGO activists. All panels, with the exception of one, were in English, the last being in Arabic. The intermix of disciplines and perspectives fostered an engaging conference.

Introductions by Dr. Muhsin al-Musawi, conference co-organizer (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Introductions by Dr. Muhsin al-Musawi, conference co-organizer (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

The conference commenced with a welcome speech given by Dr. Muhsin al-Musawi and opening remarks by Dr. Lila Abu-Lughod (Columbia University). This was followed by an opening presentation by Dr. Mohamed Ali Alhakim, Iraq Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations, who provided statistics about Iraqi higher educational institutions and the number of students enrolled inside the country and abroad with government funding. In his presentation, he strived to paint a picture of Iraq as a country with a positive future, irrespective of the decades of violence the country had been subjected to. Dr. Eric Davis (Rutgers University) gave the keynote address entitled “‘Covering’ and ‘Uncovering’ Iraq: Memory, Place, Authenticity,” in which he challenged the popular representations of Iraq as either an artificial society based on sectarian divides or a fifth column to neighboring countries, especially Iran. Instead, he argued that multiple Iraqi representations existed, where positive, civic and inclusive ones could be created as well. In his presentation, he demonstrated how Iraqi youth transgressed sectarianism within their civic society organizations and cultural production programs, such as the popular television show, “Love and War.” Davis argued that inside Iraq, teachers, academics, intellectuals, newspaper and journal editors were crucial in rebuilding Iraq’s educational system and teaching youth critical thinking skills based on the country’s history. He also advised the international academic community to stop viewing Iraq’s development, including how it was represented, as a “spectator sport,” concluding with “those of us who care about Iraq must be committed to helping it.”

Keynote address by Dr. Eric Davis (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Keynote address by Dr. Eric Davis (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Slide presentation by Dr. Eric Davis, "Anti-Sectarian activity, Iraqi youth 2013" (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Slide presentation by Dr. Eric Davis, “Anti-Sectarian activity, Iraqi youth 2013″ (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

 Slide presentation by Dr. Eric Davis, "Many Iraqis refused to celebrate their Eid in solidarity with Christians in Mosul" (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Slide presentation by Dr. Eric Davis, “Many Iraqis refused to celebrate their Eid in solidarity with Christians in Mosul” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Dr. Yasmeen Hanoosh chaired the first session of the conference: “Institutions, Infrastructure, Space.” The session included a presentation by Dr. Abeer Shaheen, “God’s Eye View into Transparent Baghdad.” Shaheen described how Baghdad came to be defined as a city under security parameters following the U.S. invasion in 2003. The imposition of physical barriers, such as walls between neighborhoods based on sectarian divides, further segregated Baghdadis. In “Baghdad Resolve: An International Collaboration to Improve Cancer Care in Iraq,” Claudia Lefko of the Iraqi Children’s Art Exchange, described the formation of an international connection project in 2012 where American children sent art to hospitalized Iraqi children diagnosed with cancer. She provided concerning statistics about the increased mortality rate in Iraq for children under five years of age, as well as the increased cancer rates for children in general. Adding to this dilemma was the decline in Iraqi social organization and schools, along with the isolation of Iraqi doctors given years of instability and war. In “Virtual Realities: The Wartime Labor of Eden in Iraq’s Marshes,” Dr. Bridget Guarasci (Oberlin College) described the material dimension of virtuality, which she tackled by engaging in an international project that aimed to restore the marshes in Iraq post 2003. Eden’s restoration came to be considered by the international community the success story of the Iraq war, though it had little effect on the actual marshes and local population. Guarasci considered the marshes restoration project the hyper simulation that did not correspond to reality. Finally, Dr. Emily Stetler’s (Mount St. Mary’s University) presentation, “Education for a New National Identity: Sketching an Iraqi Critical Pedagogy,” stipulated that Iraq’s prospects lie in the ability of its diverse youth to envision a future. An inclusive curriculum that engaged all communities was crucial in this vision. As Stetler concluded, for “Sunnis, Shi‘is, Assyrians, Turkomens, Kurds and Caucasians, the conversation begins in the classroom.”

Dr. Yasmeen Hanoosh, conference co-organizer (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Dr. Yasmeen Hanoosh, conference co-organizer (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Slide presentation by Dr. Bridget Guarasci, "Narrative Labor on Eden" (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Slide presentation by Dr. Bridget Guarasci, “Narrative Labor on Eden” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

 

Dr. Bridget Guarasci, “Virtual Realities: The Wartime Labor of Eden in Iraq’s Marshes” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Dr. Bridget Guarasci, “Virtual Realities: The Wartime Labor of Eden in Iraq’s Marshes” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Dr. Mohammad Salama chaired the second session, “Secularism, Religion, Politics.” Dr. Jabbar al-Obaidi’s (Bridgewater State University) presentation was entitled, “Iraqi Media Post 2003: An Analytical, Historical, and Political Overview.” In it, al-Obaidi described the five types of media ownership existing in Iraq post 2003: Sectarian Media Ownership, Ideological Media Ownership, Independent Media Ownership, and American Media Ownership. The Independent Media was the smallest type of media ownership, with fewer financial abilities but with an independent and inclusive voice. Al-Obaidi concluded by stressing the need for an inclusive rhetoric and denouncing the employment of racist terminology by these agencies. Henrik Andersen (independent researcher) discussed corruption in Iraq in his talk, “The Politics of Corruption and Organized Crime in Contemporary Iraq.” He described the intricate connections linking militias to Iraqi politicians and parties. As a result, average citizens felt disconnected from the state and distrustful of its ability to protect them. Andersen further described the state of corruption in other government agencies and ministries in both the Iraqi central and the KRG regional governments. Finally, the presentation of Yaseen Raad (American University of Beirut) was read in absentia as he was not able to secure a visa to the U.S. His presentation was entitled, “Consolidating Socio-Spatial Practices in a Militarized Public Space: The Case of Abu Nuwas Street in Baghdad.”

Henrik Andersen, “The Politics of Corruption and Organized Crime in Contemporary Iraq” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Henrik Andersen, “The Politics of Corruption and Organized Crime in Contemporary Iraq” (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Dr. Muhsin al-Musawi chaired the third session, entitled “Iraq in Literature.” Dr. Moneera al-Ghadeer (Columbia University) described the “Cannibalizing Iraq,” as relating to colonial violence, and focused specifically on the interrogation operation at Abu Ghraib prison carried out by American soldiers. Daniel Wolk’s (University of Chicago) presentation, “Confronting Corruption in the Iraqi City from Afar: Ṣakhī’s Khalfa al Saddah/Durūb al-fiqdān and al-Dāhūdī’s Dhākirat madinah munqariḍah,” described conceptual frameworks of corruption in Iraqi novels. Dr. Ikram Masmoudi’s (University of Delaware) talk, “Desertion: Then and Now,” compared the massive population flights of Yezidi, Christian, Sunni, and other Iraqis following the occupation of the Islamic State of Mosul and its vicinities in the summer of 2014, to the state of desertion Iraqis experienced during the Iran-Iraq war. Masmoudi argued that the Iraqi psyche was still narrated by the past and words such as “deserter” occupied the mind of contemporary Iraqi novelists, as desertion then and now conveyed a perennial response to coercion, abuse and killing. Dr. Mohammad Salama’s (San Francisco State University) presentation titled, “A Mimesis of the Future: The Dialectic of Writing and Forgetting in Luay Ḥamza ‘Abbās,” argued that ‘Abbās’ writing triggered an alternative thinking of effaced cities and mutilated memories in order to articulate a mimesis of the future which did not currently exist.

The fourth session, “Diasporic Continuities” was chaired by Dr. Jabbbar al-Obaidi. Deborah al-Najjar (University of Southern California), in “Iraq and the Consolidation of Grief,” engaged with cultural production as an imaginative space in which Iraqi Studies was re-conceptualized. She focused specifically on Dr. Sinan Antoon’s The Corpse Washer. Dr. Sobia Khan (Richland College), in “Enacting Disaster: The Iraqi Nights, a Site of Conflict and Crisis,” discussed the anguish for the homeland in Dunya Mikhail’s writings, befittingly evoked by Mikhail in this verse: “homeland. I am not your mother, so why do you weep in my lap like this every time something hurts you?” The Arabic original of this verse was written along an image of a broken brick wall, resembling a Sumerian tablet. Reemah al-Urfali’s (American University in Cairo) presentation, titled, “Translating Iraqi Women’s Literature: Between Gender and Genre,” described the ways in which Iraqi female writings were translated to English, relying on certain political ideologies and gender expectations intelligible to English readers. Finally, Dena al-Adeeb (New York University), in “Architecture of Trauma: Embodied Practices and Resistance,” focused on the Shi‘i practices of mourning post 2003 and their utilization in new political, religious, and social formations to transform previously marginalized Shi‘i communities from the periphery to the center.

Panel participants Samuel Shimon, Dr. Taher al-Bakka, Dr. Jabbar al-Obaidi, Shakir Noori, Ali Badr, and Dr. Ikram Masmoudi (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

Panel participants Samuel Shimon, Dr. Taher al-Bakka, Dr. Jabbar al-Obaidi, Shakir Noori, Ali Badr, and Dr. Ikram Masmoudi (Photo Credit: Alda Benjamen, 2015)

The fifth session, chaired by Dr. Ikram Masmoudi, was presented in Arabic and titled, “Writing in Post-Occupation Iraq: Session in Arabic with Translation.” The first speaker was Dr. Taher al-Bakka, former Minister of Higher Education in Iraq, 2004–2005. Al-Bakka provided background on the effects of the 2003 war and absence of power on higher education. During this period, 1,600 Iraqi professors left their posts and 500 were killed. In the aftermath of the war, Iraqi political parties heightened their influence on academic institutions, whereby their religious and political views were imposed on universities (for example, certain deans forced female students, including Christians, to wear the Islamic veil). Al-Bakka concluded with ways in which universities can improve, chiefly in being politically and religiously independent. Turning to the audience, he stated: “Iraq and its higher education are in need of your pens and your intellects.” Samuel Shimon (Banipal Literary Magazine, U.K.) discussed his literary career focusing on his novel Iraqi in Paris. He also shed light on his current memoir, which will tackle his experience in the Iraqi civil war of the 1970s — although an Assyrian, Shimon fought in the Kurdish uprising against the Iraqi regime. Shimon further explored the importance of teaching tolerance, and how Iraqi pluralism was reflected in his novels. Shakir Noori, (Iraqi journalist and novelist) illustrated the important relationship between a historical period and the novel. He lamented the absence of the Iraqi novel within this genre and described his role in rectifying this by writing war novels. As a novelist, Noori wrote while war was going on instead of waiting for it to end, preferring not to distance himself from the immediate sentiments associated with war. Finally, Ali Badr (Iraqi journalist and novelist) described his numerous novels, including The Tobacco Keeper and the Sinful Woman. He vividly illustrated a lucid dream while stationed in Alqosh as soldier in the 1990s. He woke up to write what he considers to be his masterpiece, The Road to Moutran Hill, a novel about a Christian character, in 24 hours. Badr was 22 years of age at the time.

The closing remarks were provided by Dr. Muhsin al-Musawi. He introduced plans for the formation of an Iraqi Center, where larger conferences on Iraqi studies can be organized. The conference co-organizers are planning to publish the conference proceedings, along with additional compelling submissions on the topic, in a co-edited volume.

Gathering in Washington, D.C., to Protest the Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq

On March 10, 2015, cultural activist Jabbar Jaafar and archaeologist Abdulameer al-Hamdani kicked off the first event of their campaign in response to an ISIS video that showed members of the terrorist group smashing irreplaceable artifacts, relics, and statues at the Mosul Museum. The March 10 event was a public gathering in front of the White House. Although it took place on a rainy day, a number of American and Iraqi activists and supporters attended the noon gathering to express their solidarity with the co-organizers.

The objectives for the gathering were: (1) to urge and pressure the policy and decision makers in order to take immediate action against the terrorist group ISIS; (2) to familiarize a general audience in the United States with the savage and uncivilized acts that ISIS has performed against the people of Iraq and their heritage; (3) to inform the international community that Iraqis are civilized people who love their heritage and are determined to exert every effort to preserve their civilizations; and (4) to state that what is rumored by ISIS, that the statutes and relics of the ancient civilizations are forbidden by Islam, is absolutely untrue according to senior moderate Islam clerics.

The logo of the campaign for protecting Iraq’s heritage. The logo shows that the terrorist groups of ISIS have destroyed the ancient Mesopotamian antiquities. The winged-bull in the poster is a symbol of power in the Assyrian civilization. (Image credit: Ayad al-Hiti, 2015)

The logo of the campaign for protecting Iraq’s heritage. The logo shows that the terrorist groups of ISIS have destroyed the ancient Mesopotamian antiquities. The winged-bull in the poster is a symbol of power in the Assyrian civilization. (Image credit: Ayad al-Hiti, 2015)

 

People gathering in front of the White house holding posters that indicate that Iraq’s heritage is facing a new wave of destruction, and that the international community should act to stop the destruction and to support Iraqis to protect humankind’s heritage. (Photo Credit: Mustafa Al Shwaili, 2015)

People gathering in front of the White house holding posters that indicate that Iraq’s heritage is facing a new wave of destruction, and that the international community should act to stop the destruction and to support Iraqis to protect humankind’s heritage. (Photo Credit: Mustafa Al Shwaili, 2015)

 

Abdulameer al-Hamdani holds a poster that says “Stop ISIS… Stop Terrorism… Save Mesopotamian Civilization.” (Photo credit: Marie-Helene Carleton, Four Corners Media, 2015)

Abdulameer al-Hamdani holds a poster that says “Stop ISIS… Stop Terrorism… Save Mesopotamian Civilization.” (Photo credit: Marie-Helene Carleton, Four Corners Media, 2015)

 

Jabbar Jaafar holds a poster in front of the White House. (Photo Credit: Marie-Helene Carleton, Four Corners Media, 2015)

Jabbar Jaafar holds a poster in front of the White House. (Photo Credit: Marie-Helene Carleton, Four Corners Media, 2015)

 

 

TAARII Supports the Penn Museum’s Statement on the Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq and Syria

The American Academic Research Institute in Iraq supports the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology’s Statement on the Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq and Syria:

The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology deplores the devastating, ongoing destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq and Syria. The continued pillaging of archaeological sites and the destruction of irreplaceable artifacts and monuments are a catastrophe for the people of the region and for all humanity. As an institution dedicated to studying, preserving, understanding, and sharing knowledge of the world’s rich and diverse cultural heritage—and with an especially strong history of work and study in Iraq—the Penn Museum particularly laments the destruction of archaeological sites, museums, and libraries in and around Mosul. Alongside our colleagues throughout the world, we urge the international community and all relevant organizations to do all they can to find solutions to halt this abhorrent destruction.

Joint Statement on Cultural Destruction in Iraq—Archaeological Institute of America
Statement from the British Institute for the Study of Iraq

The Penn Museum is actively involved in this pursuit through its Penn Cultural Heritage Center (PennCHC) which is a partner of Safeguarding the Heritage of Syria and Iraq Project (SHOSI), a consortium of the PennCHC; the Office of the Under Secretary for History, Art, and Culture at the Smithsonian Institution; the Geospatial Technologies Project at the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Shawnee State University; The Day After, a Syrian NGO; and the U.S. Institute of Peace. The SHOSI Project supports the efforts of heritage professionals and local communities in Syria and Iraq, who are working under dire circumstances to protect their cultural heritage for the future. The SHOSI Project’s ongoing work includes working with displaced heritage professionals and community members who are attempting to preserve cultural heritage, documenting high-risk sites in Syria and Iraq, first-aid conservation treatment of damaged sites, geospatial site monitoring, and periodic workshops and training activities.

For the original statement, visit the Penn Museum website.